Primal Endurance Podcast

Welcome to The Primal Endurance Podcast, where we challenge the ineffective, overly stressful conventional approach to endurance training and provide a refreshing, sensible, healthy, fun alternative. Going primal frees you from carbohydrate dependency and turns you into a fat burning beast! Enjoy interviews from elite athletes, coaches, authors and scientists on the cutting edge of endurance training and performance.
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Primal Endurance Podcast





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Mar 8, 2019
Future Primal Endurance shows will be published on the Primal Blueprint Podcast channel. Please subscribe and enjoy the diverse content on this thriving channel. You'll see the Endurance shows designated accordingly for quick access at a glance. You'll also enjoy feature interviews from ancestral health leaders, shows dedicated to keto, and narrations of posts. 
In this fast-paced show, Brad hits you with a barrage of hot topics and reflections about healthy eating and training: Shifting from HIIT to HIRT, as advocated by Craig Marker at StrongFirst (listen to his Primal Endurance episode). Stands for High-Intensity Repeat Training. The importance of gut health, especially for endurance athletes who tempt gut dysfunction with long, hot workouts. How Brad healed his gut dysfunction by pounding probiotic foods and supplements and making his own kombucha. Brad's surprising recent test results from NourishBalanceThrive (listen to previous shows with Chris Kelly and with Dr. Tommy Wood), possibly indicating he should eat more food! A fantastic success story from UK, where coach Morgan has healed from serious heart problems with the Primal Endurance approach. Can I add 5 more beats to my MAF based on AeT test results? I'm concerned about going slower after a couple of months of MAF. Comparing the aerobic benefits of running and cycling and the cross training effect. A question about the great Walter George, 1880's era world record-setting runner, and his amazing "100-up" running drill. Finally, Brad describing his spontaneous, intuitive, sometimes keto, sometimes not eating patterns. 

We are switching the publication of Primal Endurance podcasts over to the Primal Blueprint channel. [00:00:34] 

When preparing for high Intensity repeat training make sure you are rested and motivated, then recover. [00:01:51] 

Poor gut health is very prevalent and we might not even know we have a problem. [00:06:23] 

Learn how to make your own Kombucha. [00:13:09] 

It is believed that Triglycerides to HDL ratio is a key to heart disease risk factor metric. (1 to 1 or better is the goal.) [00:17:05] 

Success story from Morgan Williams talks about how the primal endurance program helped him get out of the unfit coach trap.  [00:22:50] 

Lisa, age 48, is seeing limited results from Maffetone aerobic threshold. How to adjust your training is suggested. [00:25:34] 

When someone like MaryAnn is trying something new, it's okay to ask "What is normal?" [00:28:44] 

Mike asks: Running is much more taxing than biking. Is there a comparable maximum duration training run? [00:30:56] 

Mike also asks does building the aerobic base for running will help your cycling base and vice versa? [00:34:54] 

Sauna is highly recommended for recovery. [00:35:52] 

Lor asks about the 100-up drill. Is it a good way to build foot and leg strength for running?  [00:38:24] 

Brian asks about the Keto Diet.  What does Brad's eating day look like? [00:43:46] 

Do you know what happens to an animal that is stressed at the moment they die? [00:52:21] 

Dark chocolate is great but you should look at label and see "bean to bar." Cacao bean should be the first ingredient. Also you should see "fair trade" designation.  [00:55:24] 


Craig Marker Podcast

Jacques Devore

Chris Kelly

Dr. Ron  Sinha

Dr. Rhonda Patrick

Walter George

Wild Idea Buffalo

Fast Food Nation Book

Brad’s podcast on chocolate

Jan 18, 2019

After the awesome big picture show about healthy living and avoiding the manipulations of today’s mainstream media and marketing forces, Brad welcomes Dr. Maffetone back for a show on the usual popular topics of endurance peak performance. First, Phil discusses the amazing marathoner Eluid Kipchoge, and how he can finally hit the magic 1:59 barrier. First, running barefoot would achieve a significant time improvement! Yes, hard to do if you have been in shoes for years. Second, getting muscular balance treatments, because hard training creates imbalances that increase injury risk and slow you down. Dr. Phil says even extreme endurance goals are not necessarily unhealthy for older folks if you adopt the correct approach. He cites examples of world class endurance athletes around age 40, and also recommends that you have more patience with recovery as you get older. On the topic of explosive training, Phil relates how important this is even for endurance athletes, who “epidemic” show physical and functional weaknesses. Try to add a vertical jump test to your MAF test as an excellent fitness marker. If you can’t exceed 12 inches from a standing start, you best add more explosive training. 

A couple great ideas: Sprint for 7 seconds several times, with long recovery periods between (~30 seconds) and repeat a couple times per week. Consider Maffetone’s “slow weights” idea, where you perform a single set of a single exercise, but repeat it several times a day. I have a hexagonal deadlift bar in my backyard for this purpose. Choose a weight that’s about 80% of your single rep absolute max and do about six reps. If you do this several times a day, you are talking about a fantastic increase in strength in a short time! What you are doing with these brief workouts is recruiting more of your existing muscle fibers to perform a function. This differs from the hypertrophy workouts when you break down and exhaust muscles, slam down protein shakes, and prompt the growth of bigger muscles—often these are for looking rad only and can obviously compromise endurance performance. With these brief single set, single exercise sessions, you avoid the risks and the adverse consequences of post-workout muscle soreness, something Brad complained to Phil about and he confirms is no bueno. Soreness leaves the muscles weak for a couple days, and if you get sore a couple times a week, well…FYI, did you know Ben Franklin was the one who made up “no pain, no gain?” Always fun insights from Dr. Phil. Enjoy, and check out his website and products!

It's time to start thinking about running barefoot. [00:00:43] 

We are now close to an athlete breaking two-hour marathon. Look at Eliud Kipchoge. [00:03:41] 

Muscles imbalance is a big concern. Posture and gait are important. [00:12:59] 

Running at the same pace with muscle imbalance could raise your heart rate 5 or 6 beats! [00:15:27] 

What kind of practitioner would deal with muscle imbalance? The assessment is really important. [00:17:19] 

The times of the marathon have decreased in recent years. Why have people slowed down?  [00:19:18] 

Diet is primary to the training. You cannot run away from a bad diet. [00:22:51] 

As we age, do we need to rethink the basic premise of these endurance goals? [00:24:16] 

What about in the explosive sports? [00:29:04] 

As you age, are there some modifications one would make to their training? [00:31:53] 

What kind of parameters do you recommend to assess whether the subject is recovered and ready for another explosive workout?  [00:36:18] 

Overtraining or undertraining? [00:38:49] 

Shouldn't we expect muscle soreness after workouts? [00:41:13] 

What is a jump test? [00:42:58] 

How can we build strength without getting weak muscles? [00:47:00] 

We can train the brain to learn to contract more muscle fibers within the muscle. [00:51:57] 

If you are not eating enough protein, it will be difficult to get stronger. [01:01:56] 

Not all vitamins you buy in a jar are healthy. Do we get enough Vitamin D? [01:03:53] 


Eliud Kipchoge

Phil Maffetone

Pocket Hercules


  • You cannot run away from a bad diet! (Tim Noakes)
  • We have a serious epidemic of weakness throughout the world. (Phil Maffetone)
  • Why would you want to sacrifice your health and fitness just to look better? (Maffetone)
  • People who put on a lot of bulk are not necessarily stronger. (Maffetone)
Jan 4, 2019

Dr. Phil Maffetone returns to the show and we take a few steps back to cover some big picture items. First, the tremendous amount manipulation and hype we are exposed to each day with mainstream media is destructive and unhealthy. Phil disengages from this stuff! Realize how we make impulse decisions based on primitive brain function, or alternatively can get over-analytical. Better to cultivate our intuition where we can leverage both powerful gut instincts with our rational mind skills. Phil describes the global “overfat” epidemic, and how you can strive to keep waistline less than half your height in inches. This will help you avoid the prevailing disease triad of chronic inflammation, carbohydrate intolerance, and insulin resistance. First step to health: Ditch refined carbohydrates (sugars, flour/bread products, sweetened beverages) for two weeks per Maffetone’s “2-week test.” Then you can reintroduce natural carbohydrates back in (fruit, sweet potatoes, etc.) and see what you can tolerate without adverse symptoms. For many people with insulin resistance and decades of junk food consumption, keto might be warranted. Check out Dr. Phil’s great articles and products at



We want to personalize our journey of life in a way that we continually build our health and fitness.  [00:02:50]

There are two ways that our brains work.  1. Instant gratification. 2. We think in an analytical way.  [00:07:35] 

Many writings are: "Here's how to do it." Sometimes it makes things worse. [00:12:11] 

Companies are allowed to convince us to be unhealthy. Pubic health education needs to help. [00:14:24] 

Sometimes a person has to experience pain for them to start to listen to advice.  [00:16:11] 

There needs to be a consensus about refined vegetable oils and their impact on public health. It's about the money. [00:20:07] 

What should a well intentioned person do about making decisions about eggs, for example? Or training styles? [00:24:04] 

People are often willing to latch on to tradition and emotion when making their decisions. [00:28:22] 

The problem is it is difficult for us to see if the advise we are getting is effective. Doctors tend to treat the diagnosis and forget there is a person there. [00:30:33] 

There is so much information out there, that people are overwhelmed and confused. The stress factor plays a huge role. [00:36:49] 

What are the causes of chronic illnesses?  [00:42:44] 

Chronic inflammation, carbohydrate intolerance, and insulin resistance causing people to be overfat. (85% of Indian adults are overfat.) [00:46:00] 

Measure your waist and hope that is is less half the height of your body. If it is not, then you are overfat.  [00:49:00] 

If we want to turn things around, what can we do to attack this problem? Get rid of refined sugar and carbohydrates. [00:55:17] 

One thing you may notice is that our brains work better, therefore our instincts and tuition are working better. [01:03:31] 




Is your waist less than half of your height?


We buy the sizzle, not the steak.


You can be normal weight and not obese and still have excess body fat.

Oct 5, 2018

Brad Kearns talks to a big-time peak performance enthusiast from Austin, TX named Dude Spellings. Dude is an avid Speedgolfer, primal/paleo/keto eater, cold therapy enthusiast, and endurance athlete devoted to the Primal Endurance approach. He is deep into the primal living journey and a student of all latest health topics and you will enjoy this two-part episode chock full of great tips from a real guy doing his best to balance a busy life, delay aging, and pursue peak performance goals. Dude was a high school running champion who let himself get overweight and out of shape. He returned to fitness with a traditional chronic approach and hit a plateau. He had lost 20 pounds but had 25 more to go. Part 1 starts with the compelling account of how Dude threw his back out six years ago and vowed to "not be that guy" in the years ahead. He was doing okay with health and fitness goals but realized he could be much better. He was suffering from an annoying recurring skin condition that wasn't responding to medical treatment but cleared when he optimized his diet. Pick up some good tips and reflections to be the best you can be from Dude, and stay tuned for part 2!




When he wanted to lose weight he tried the "old-fashioned way" using My Fitness Pal, counting calories. [00:03:28] 

Dude's back injury was a turning point for him. [00:07:05] 

He realized that cutting calories too much kills the weight loss! [00:11:59] 

He still believed that carbohydrate intake was needed for exercise. [00:13:56] 

It is estimated that 40 percent of the calories that you get in a restaurant are from the refined seed oils that are so bad for you. [00:14:52] 

A good starting point is to get in the habit of reading labels. You'd be surprised what you are eating even when you are trying to eat healthy!! [00:16:28] 

Some people find that their allergies, skin diseases, and other maladies disappear after they drop grains from their diet.  [00:21:32] 

The elephant in the room in the endurance community is the excess body fat. [00:28:14] 

The Maffetone's training was Dude's motivation for his great success. [00:31:22] 

Meal choices are part of your training. [00:35:22] 

The way he was training before was keeping him constantly sore with muscle tension.  [00:36:38] 


Dr. Peter Attia: Brad’s podcast with Peter covers longevity diet, and finding the drive.

Wheat Belly: Book on the grain-free lifestyle without sacrificing nutrition, variety or taste.

Dr. Phil Maffetone:  He says “Everyone is an athlete.”

Dr. Cate Shanahan: Podcast with Brad on why vegetable oils are toxic.


  • You have to get these toxic foods out of your system.
  • The elephant in the room in the endurance community is the excess body fat.
  • Meal choices are part of your training.
Sep 28, 2018

This episode was inspired by awesome email commentary from a devoted listener, Primal Endurance advocate, and accomplished collegiate level runner Jack McGinness. Kipchoge recently ran the Berlin Marathon in 2:01.39, shattering the previous record and closing in on the previously unfathomable 2:00 barrier. Kipchoge’s pace per mile was an astonishing 4:39. Most accomplished runners would be hard-pressed to match this pace for even a half a lap around a track, but Kipchoge can continue at this speed for 26 miles. This is truly one of the most phenomenal athletic performances of the past 100 years. 

What’s interesting about Kipchoge’s story is that, just as Dr. Phil Maffetone predicted in his commentary on the Primal Endurance Mastery Course, Kipchoge has become the greatest marathoner in history by training easier than other elite marathoners. Strange as it may seem, this guy rarely exceeds what we call MAF pace. Oh, Kipchoge runs like the wind, on muddy trails and high altitude in Kenya, but he explains that he tries to never exceed 80% of his capacity, instead of saving his energy for races.  

He is super consistent, super disciplined, but he never trashes himself, never gets sick or injured, and doesn’t even taper for races. He runs 110-120 miles a week with great discipline and joy. Hit some of the links in the show notes and learn how wise and thoughtful he is—far more than just a running machine! You will learn some interesting insights from this show, particularly when you compare and contrast Kipchoge’s eminently sensible approach with the ridiculous Type A chronic approach that is still the norm in America, particularly in the collegiate and high school systems. The cover of the book Primal Endurance says “Slow down to go faster,” and now Kipchoge has actualized this concept.


In the Berlin Marathon in September 2018 this runner came up with a 2:01:39 time. This computes to an average 4:39 mile!! [00:01:36] 

Running is a most satisfying sport.  But you have to do it right. The running community in the past has been doing it disastrously wrong! [00:04:05] 

Doping continues to be common in the running world. [00:06:28] 

What is Kipchoge training method? He never over-extends himself. [00:09:53] 

The only thing that is in somewhat conflict with the primal theory is he has a constant schedule. [00:15:42] 

If you are a person who's trying to break the three-hour mark or the four-hour mark, just apply these insights to your relative example. [00:20:28] 

The general problem with many American distance runners is too many type A runners who obsess over their workouts and paces and then fail to take care of the little things. [00:21:59] 

Kipchoge is going to change the game. [00:25:43] 



The science of running article analyzing his training


Kipchoge training log



  • Only the disciplined ones in life are free.  If you are undisciplined, you are a slave to your moods and your passions.
  • It’s not about the legs, its about the heart and mind.
  • The best time to plant a tree was twenty-five years ago. The second best time to plant a tree is today.
  • Motivation + discipline = consistency

Sep 7, 2018

This show is about rethinking the basic notions of athletic training, particularly the ‘no pain no gain’ model that’s been widely criticized but is still embedded into DNA of many endurance athletes. Brad offers insights from four experts that may just blow your mind and get you to make some changes in your schedule that can lead to big improvements, and reduced risk of overtraining, illness, injury and burnout. These insights place particular emphasis on the recovery aspect of peak performance, something that has been overlooked or taken for granted by hard-charging endurance athletes. It's time to wake up and implement an evolved approach to your endurance goals, with help from four great thought leaders Brad discusses in this show. Some brief highlights:


Dr. Phil Maffetone: Honor MAF heart rate and emphasize aerobic development. Never exceed 90% of max heart rate during high intensity sessions. 


Brian MacKenzie: The Power, Speed, Endurance guru and founder of Crossfit Endurance is now obsessed with recovery as the next evolution of athletic training--stuff like breathing practice, and hot and cold therapy! 


Joel Jamieson: Joel's Rebound Workouts entail doing a focused protocol of movements that can actually help speed recovery by stimulating parasympathetic activity. The workout includes breathing, stretching, mobility/range of motion exercise, doing positive lifts only (dropping the weight after lifting to avoid eccentric), and doing very short intervals with mindful heart rate lowering during long recovery periods.

Craig Marker: Craig and Pavel Tsatsouline of StrongFirst and StrongEndurance suggest that the popular HIIT training is inferior to High-Intensity Repeat Training, where you rest long enough to deliver consistent high-quality efforts and don't get exhausted by the end.

Whether you are a casual or serious endurance athlete, this show can transform your approach to sport, improving performance and reducing the risk of burnout. Listen to this show like your life depends upon it!

Brad reviews the most important insights gathered from his interviews with these experts.

Dr. Phil Maffetone: It's so important to get this out there: The Maffetone formula is 180 minus your age in beats per minute is the maximum fat-burning point that should be the goal of all people interested in maintaining the best training and fitness. [00:03:36] 

You need not ever exceed 90 percent of your maximum heart rate even during the most intense and explosive training sessions. [00:06:26] 

Brian MacKenzie, Founder of CrossFit: Breathing, Recovery, Training, Strength and Conditioning, Endurance, Sports Programming, Mechanics, Injuries, Nutrition, and Sleep Analysis are the pieces he puts together to create the total athlete. [00:10:31] 

The Ice Man, Wim Hof, trains people to overcome the resistance to cold with his breathing protocols. [00:14:57] 

Joel Jamison offers ground-breaking insights: Emphasis is on recovery-based training methods (rebound workouts). Those are the sessions you perform when you are trying to recover. [00:18:07] 

Craig Marker, Recommends High-Intensity Repeat Training which is to make the effort, rest for sufficient duration in terms of the quality of the effort.  [00:22:59] 

Four sprints and rest combo works the best for Brad. Focus on quality. [00:28:16]  

You can apply this same mentality no matter what your sport. The maximum sustained power session vs. the fatiguing session is important to understand. [00:29:31] 

Brad reviews the importance of resting between the mobility work. [00:34:43] can analyze your genetic profile to see what sport you are structured for. [00:37:59] 



1:59 Marathon



Win Hof

Joel Jamison

Phil Maffetone

Brian MacKenzie

Craig Marker



“The record will be broken by an athlete who is doing less mileage and less intensity than today’s marathon champions.” (Dr. Phil Maffetone)

Aug 31, 2018

Listen in as Brad Kearns and Dr. Phil Maffetone have a casual chat about an assortment of interesting topics related to endurance training and general health. Brad complains about his crash and burn patterns, where he feels great for a while and then has down periods of diminished energy and training output. Dr. Maffetone speculates that the cause could be an inappropriate maximum aerobic heart rate value, and urges a conservative approach when calculating your number. He also mentions low vitamin D as a common cause of fluctuating energy levels, and that athletes should strive to get up around 60 or 70 ng/mL. This is way above the mainstream recommendations and a very interesting insight for many sun-starved athletes to consider.

Regarding sleep, Dr. Maffetone urges everyone to get at least 7-9 hours of uninterrupted sleep each night. If you find yourself awakening in the middle of the night, it’s a sign of elevated cortisol levels and an overly stressful lifestyle. With high quality sleep each night, napping should be minimally necessary, but a nap of 30 minutes and no longer than an hour can be restorative.

Dr. Maffetone’s book, 1:59, discusses the possibility of a human running a sub-2-hour marathon and how it will happen. Maffetone suggests that a smart athlete backing off of the ultra-high volume of today’s elites (and running barefoot!) might gain some performance benefits. Maffetone also discusses the difference between the desirable overreaching in training to improve fitness, versus the undesirable state of overtraining (fatigue, depression, hormone imbalance). Brad and Phil discuss the interesting and confusing phenomenon that occurs in the first stage of overtraining. Here, sympathetic (fight or flight) activity is elevated, the athlete feels energized and aggressive, and PRs can even happen. Without a reasonable and intuitive approach, the athlete is headed for a crash when stress hormone production becomes exhausted. Enjoy this informative discussion with Dr. Phil Maffetone, including his own music framing the show! Learn more at

Show notes:

Brad asks: when I have been able to perform great athletic feats, why do I feel a crash and burn afterward? [03:06] 

  Brad talks about his stress while playing Speed Golf and how he found his heart rate higher than normal. [07:44] 

  The importance of Vitamin D testing and the vitamin’s optimal levels. [12:19] 

  How important is measuring heart rate variability for attending to your heart health and ability for recovery? [15:14] 

  A big part of recovery is getting a good night's sleep, meaning 7 to 9 hours of uninterrupted sleep. [17:40]

  Dr. Phil talks about departing from extreme overtraining, as mentioned in his book, The 1:59 Marathon. [21:52]  

  What is the difference between overreaching and the undesirable state of overtraining? [25:36]  

  Brad talks about his own experience with crashing and burning. [29:51]   

  Are recovery and rest more important than the training? [34:00] 

  We have to look at diet, rest, circadian rhythm, Vitamin D, and stress all together. The Kenyans are a good example. [37:42] 

  Even shoes are a problem for slowing your pace. [39:28] 



The more we recover, the stronger we get!

Selected Links from this Episode:

1:59 Marathon
The Healthy Golfer
Phil Maffetone


Aug 24, 2018

Host Brad Kearns talks to one of the true legends of endurance athletics, Dr. Phil Maffetone. Dr. Maffetone has advised some of the greatest endurance athletes in history, like triathlon champions Mike Pigg and Mark Allen. For decades, Dr. Maffetone has been promoting the benefits of aerobic development and how to protect and nourish health in pursuit of ambitious endurance goals. In this episode, Dr. Maffetone details how to get started with the Maffetone method of endurance training, something that will be of particular interest to any endurance athlete who has experienced fatigue, injury, recurring minor illness, regression or stagnation in performance and especially inability to reduce excess body fat.

Dr. Maffetone says to the first start with a self-assessment of your body, performance, and stress levels. Take into account all stress factors, such as consuming refined carbs, drinking too much caffeine, not getting enough sleep, doing too much training and maintaining an elevated heart rate. The second step is to identify your maximum aerobic heart rate (the 180 minus age formula detailed in his book, The Big Book of Endurance Training and Racing) and commence a strict base building period. The third is to eliminate sugar and other refined carbs from your diet. Fourth, conduct a Maximum Aerobic Function test once a month to ensure that you are making steady progress in your aerobic development. Enjoy this informative discussion with Dr. Phil Maffetone, including his own music framing the show! Learn more at


Being fit does not necessarily mean that you are healthy. [02.40] 

  The difficulty of putting on events like triathlons and music concerts. [05:07] 

  How it’s hard to coach a hard-driving athlete to have patience and

  slow down their training. [07:30] 

  The problem of an incorrectly developed aerobic system. [10.09]

  The dangers of looking for a fight or flight reflex for satisfaction. [12:00]

  What can we do to balance stress, rest better and be healthier? [14.32]

  What are the first steps to eliminating excess body fat? Diet or exercise? [15:34]  

  If people build a really good aerobic base and want to fine tune their speed, how can they do that? [19:52] 

  Stress is something that needs to be addressed. There is physical, chemical (dietary), and mental/emotional stress. [23:16] 

  How to tell if you don’t have a good aerobic heart rate. [24:34] 

  Why you should get off sugar. [26:46] 

  The concept of "cheat days" is leading you on the wrong path. [28:53] 

  Get rid of your stresses.  When you have a healthier aerobic system, the body is meant to deal with stress. [30:52] 

  How do you build a better aerobic system? [35:43] 

  Dr. Maffetone spent years coming up with a heart rate formula (180 minus your age). What does this number represent? [00:39:50] 

  With a heart monitor, you will be able to get a good idea of how your body is progressing.  [46:38] What is this test? You strap on the heart rate monitor and establish a fixed course that you repeat. [53:04] 

  The important thing relating to competitive success is simply slowing down the average pace in workouts. [57:26]  

Read more at:

Jul 27, 2018

Brad covers some very thoughtful Q&A, including where weights might fit into the seemingly rigid guidelines and how Primal Endurance differs from Primal Blueprint Fitness guidelines. He looks at the possibility of over-consuming fat and possibly compromising fat loss goals. Brad's super duper awesome cure for plantar fasciitis, how MAF might require you to slow down to a fast walk in the name of rebuilding your broken down body. How to integrate carbs into peak performance efforts and do they cause any trouble? More great stuff along these lines, thanks for the great questions, enjoy the show!

Kevin asks about lifting weights. Please explain the Primal Endurance rules on this activity. Why are you so tough on strength training? [00:01:34] 

Tori wants to know about what can she do after surgery for ACL regarding recovery.  What can she do about her diet since she won't be able to train as she has the past ten years? [00:06:01] 

Olivia has a wonderful testimonial regarding healthy eating. They are eating Keto and paleo and feels great.[00:13:07] 

David Porte. a 50-year-old trail runner, is a steady listener of the podcasts. What can be done about his plantar fasciitis? [00:15:27] 

Conrad asking about short sprints. What would be advised about altering my weekly schedule regarding sprints? [00:19:44] 

Darren has quite a running history. He asks about Maffetone's suggestions of one hour sessions with 15 minute warm up, 30 minutes at maximum aerobic heart rate, and 15 minute cool down. He is training for NYC marathon. What distances should I be training at?  [00:24:35] 

Matt: How do mid-race or pre-race carbs affect my ability to burn fat?  [00:29:23]

Derek is asking: What do you recommend to someone who loves Keto but expends 3000 to 5000 calories a day during constant activity and two highly intense workouts per day? [00:35:50] 



Dr. Mark Cucuzella: He is a professor at West Virginia University School of Medicine. Of his many specialties he has designed programs to promote healthier and better running and has also worked on getting sugar out of the hospital because he knows excessive sugar consumption leads to a host of ailments.

Brad’s podcast with Mark Cucuzzella This podcast is about how physiology affects food habits (and vice versa), carnivore diets, high vs. low-carb/keto for bodybuilding, exogenous ketones, how insulin sensitivity possibly affects BAT vs WAT fat depots.

Ted Mcdonald: Creator of barfoot running.  He has run the Inca Trail in Peru. He teaches yoga.

Paleo FX: The world’s premier holistic wellness event, covering healthy nutrition, fitness, sustainability, self-development, spirituality, relationships, entrepreneurship and everything in between.

Trail Runner Nation: They provide podcasts and social media connections for trail running, pacing, race nutrition, gear and much more.

UCan:  For a steady long-lasting energy without the sugar crash!!

Luis Villasenor:  A Podcast on strength training on a Ketogenic diet



You need to tie in what you are doing nutritionally in training and know exactly what is happening on race day. (Brad)

May 25, 2018

Host Brad Kearns welcomes pioneering physician and legendary endurance runner Dr. Mark Cucuzzella of West Virginia. Mark has run a sub-3 hour marathon for 30 consecutive years! With an all-time best of 2:24, he is still going strong at age 51. And he is doing this stuff in barefoot/minimal footwear. He opened the nations first minimalist running shoe store called TwoRiversTreads. In this show, Mark talks about his high carb, running machine past and his evolution into a healthy, fat-adapted runner. He advocates for doing short bursts of sprinting frequently, called "alactic sprints". When you accelerate for several seconds, you teach your central nervous system the optimal movement patterns to maximize propulsive force and prevent injury, but you aren't overstressing the body with longer duration sprints. Mark is big on going barefoot and being active instead of being a "zoo human." 

He discusses his truly revolutionary effort to rid his local hospital of sweetened beverages and enhance education in the diabetic community as to the benefits of ditching processed carbs and increasing intake of healthy, nutritious fats. Mark's journey was turbo-charged six years ago when he learned he was pre-diabetic, despite decades of elite level marathon performance and being a lean, mean machine. He read Gary Taubes's work and embarked on a low-carb lifestyle, also embracing the aerobic training principles of his longtime friend Dr. Phil Maffetone. Mark mentions that is the stuffy medical world, we need convincing for dietary transformation, and that Continuous Glucose Monitors are now easily accessible for all. The small effort he is making in West Virginia (the most obese all US states in fact!) is spreading quickly in the medical community as Mark spreads the word. Enjoy these insights from a truly exceptional endurance performer who is doing transformative work in his hospital environment!

After performing at a fast level and having the accompanying injuries, is there a way to analyze the future potential you have to improve or surpass your previous record?  [00:05:14] 

Does the development of the athletic ability in a youngster really help prepare for adult competition? [00:09:22] 

How does one work on their form? [00:14:43] 

The body loves variability. [00:20:08] 

How has the medical world failed in keeping up with the new information on diabetes? [00:21:22] 

What happened when Mark was diagnosed with pre-diabetes? [00:35:03] 

What about the lower heart rate training program? How did the fat burning capacity develop? [00:42:11] 

The importance of sleep is often overlooked.[00:43:48] 

What is hypoglycemia? [00:45:02] 

Can a person still eat carbs at all? [00:48:56] 


FreeStyle Libre

Mark Cucuzella

Natural Running Center

True Form Runner

Two Rivers Treads

May 4, 2018

Brad Kearns tackles more interesting Q&A from Primal Endurance podcast listeners and book readers. Submit your questions at and they will get covered on the air.  While the questions relate to the specific needs of the individual, the answers are presented in a manner that applies to a broad audience. Listen and enjoy learning about the challenges and successes of your endurance peers, and come away with plenty of practical tips to help improve your training and competitive results.

Todd (age 33) has Lymes disease and he's had many surgeries but still is a fit specimen. He is now getting ready for a sprint triathlon and is asking about how to prevent burnout. What is the best way for him to train? [00:00:59] 

Paul is new to Primal Endurance life. He went on a 24-hour mountain bike ride. He suffered from GI problems and had to stop the race. He also asks about keeping his heart rate where he wants it to be when he is going uphill on his bike? What does he need to do differently? [00:08:10] 

Sometimes you just have to relax about the competition. [00:15:31] 

What are some suggestions about fueling during race? [00:18:05] 

Warren asks "How do apply the 180 minus age formula to children?" [00:23:44] 

Bradley asks if people would consider refereeing soccer an endurance sport? [00:27:20] 

Bruce has trouble buying into Dr. Maffetone's 180 minus age training formula. [00:30:34] 

Doug asks about the run-walk formula that he is using. [00:32:38] 

Apr 6, 2018

Brad updates you on topics of recent interest and new strategies he is trying out in training. Included is his experiment to bring more downtime into his exercise patterns. This means periods of 24-36 hours where there are no formal workouts; this is in order to perform at a higher level when he pushes himself with challenging endurance or high-intensity workouts. That said, Brad also discusses the importance of establishing a baseline routine of general everyday movement, mobility/flexibility exercises, random strength/explosive efforts, and not worrying as much about filling in all the blanks of a training log. 

 Brad reports that despite reduced overall running frequency and monthly volume, he felt stronger than ever delivering a maximum effort to get his first win in a Speedgolf tournament—playing 18 holes on a hilly course in San Luis Obispo in 52 min and shooting 85 for a Speedgolf score of 137. Brad credits being fully rested, along with having some good sprint workouts, for a strong endurance performance at the tournament. Yes, high-intensity sprint sessions will greatly improve your endurance if they are conducted properly and not in an overly strenuous manner. Then, you pair occasional hard stuff with very comfortably paced aerobic workouts that are safely below MAF heart rate or perhaps WAY below MAF heart rate. Don’t worry; you still get a significant aerobic stimulus even if it’s a brisk walk or a cruiser bike trip to Farmer’s Market. Dr. Maffetone details these concepts in his series of outstanding videos in the Primal Endurance Mastery Course at


Brad lets us in on some of the fitness routines that keep him in shape. What?? Downtime?? [00:02:21] 

Does slowing down interfere with the competition? What happens when Brad plays Speed Golf? [00:14:39] 

"Simply Running" is a book about modifying training by Nick Willis suggesting the same slowing down theory. [00:18:30] 

Is excessive cardio really unhealthy? [00:20:54] 

What happens if you are sleep deprived? What is Leptin?  What is Ghrelin? [00:24:06]  

Are endurance athletes at risk? [00:26:44] 

Does genetics come into play? [00:30:21] 


Mar 23, 2018

Brad Kearns tackles more interesting Q&A from Primal Endurance podcast listeners and book readers. Submit your questions at and they will get covered on the air. While the questions relate to the specific needs of the individual, the answers are presented in a manner that applies to a broad audience. Listen and enjoy learning about the challenges and successes of your endurance peers, and come away with plenty of practical tips to help improve your training and competitive results.

Chris asks if the problem people have with running at the "brutally slow place" has anything to do with body composition. [00:02:21] 

What about nose breathing? Do we need a heart monitor?  [00:05:31] 

Ben asks for advise for those folks who are only able to get out there a couple of short runs per week. [00:13:27] 

Tom says he is only a year into running and I really loved it BUT after getting into Maffetone's Yellow Book and Primal Endurance books, he doesn't have any fun. [00:17:33] 

What happens if we don't acknowledge that our bodies aren't at 10 percent well? [00:21:41] 

Rob is asking about his 13 year-old son's development as he is getting into competitive sports.  [00:26:53] 

What about fast twitch vs. slow twitch muscles? [00:32:03] 

If you do a lot of endurance training will you loose something on the fast twitch side? [00:33:41] 

Feb 2, 2018

Host Brad Kearns dusts off the age-old dilemma for endurance athletes: the relative benefits and contribution of intense efforts versus a commitment to aerobic base building to deliver best results. Brad reflects on his recent show with Dave Scott, where Dave advocated frequent brief, high intensity bursts during endurance workouts to flush the cardiovascular system and deliver rapid fitness improvements. Brad stacks this insight against Dr. Maffetone's extensive commentary in the Primal Endurance Mastery Course videos that there is a stress impact of every workout and that pursuing modern endurance goals is generally antithetical to health. Brad mentions his own experimentation with intuitive, very short duration bursts of high intensity effort, such as banging out 100 Decline Spiderman pushups every time he visits a certain dog park, and the idea that keeping things brief can prevent that breakdown and delayed recovery time from a grueling high intensity workout.  

Brad also tackles a few listener questions in this show, relating to tapering (reduce volume, maintain intensity), applying the Primal Endurance principles to team sports, and finally a success story from Suzanne where she improved her ironman time by FOUR hours following Primal Endurance principles. Enjoy!

How to reconcile the emphasis on aerobic base with Dave Scott's suggestion to include brief bouts of high intensity efforts frequently? [00:01:50] 

Todd from Australia asks about having not much time to workout so when he does, his heart rate it elevated above aerobic maximum. He asks about training volume and time frames. [00:13:23] 

Peter is a marathoner but wonders about tapering: the proper pre-race preparations like nutrition and workouts. [00:18:26] 

A soccer referee asks: How does his situation of running, jogging, sprinting, and running backwards etc. fit with primal endurance framework?  [00:22:07] 

Suzanne is wondering about her recovery after Ironman Nice where simply changing her nutrition and following Primal Endurance improved her time. [00:27:43] 

Links to publish with this show

Dave Scott Episode 119

Primal Endurance Mastery Course

Decline Spiderman pushups

Brad's Morning Exercise Routine


Nov 24, 2017

Co-hosts Brad Kearns and Lindsay Taylor hit Phil with some questions, including several submitted by members of the popular MAF Method Facebook group and the Primal Endurance Facebook group. Phil sets the record straight on the concept of a modified Maffetone aerobic maximum heart rate calculation for fat-adapted athletes. “Doesn’t work,” says the MAF man himself. Strive to get faster at your “180-age” heart rate instead of cheat up to higher heart rates, more stress, and more glucose burning. Phil asserts why you should subtract 10 from your 180-age number if you can taking any kind of prescription medication. Phil talks through the pros and cons of fasting versus getting some nutritious fat calories in to start your day. Enjoy many other juicy topics in this fast moving Q&A show!

Are there modifications to the maximum aerobic heart rate (MAF formula) in relation to healthy dietary habits? [00:02:33] 

Does the 180 minus age formula apply to everyone? [00:08:56] 

Question from a listener: If I am working out at 180 minus age but I'm on thyroid medication and I am forgetting to subtract the 10 that I should, am I in the black hole? [00:12:57] 

If we are on hormonal (birth control) medication, do we still subtract 10 from the formula? [00:15:10] 

Can you explain the importance of the moderate speed workouts compared to going full speed while training? [00:16:48] 

Even the big winners find that their bodies begin to fail them when they have been doing all-out training over the years. [00:22:57] 

People complain when they have to run slower.  Then they end up complaining that they should have run faster! They don't understand what is happening in their body. [00:26:06] 

As people age, are there any special considerations for adjusting the MAF formula? [00:28:04] 

One has to be honest with him or herself about the progress of their fitness. [00:33:35] 

Is there a formula for the number of hours one should train when they are looking forward to an extra long race? [00:35:18] 

Why do people need to learn this on their own? Why ignore the experts who have been there? [00:43:12] 

Why define our world as a "no pain, no gain" society? [00:47:46] 

Will one to two beers be okay after a long run? [00:48:35] 

What do you think is the most misunderstood concept of the MAF approach? [00:50:21] 

Maffetone Facebook

Maffetone training charts

No Pain, No Gain Society


Nov 17, 2017

Co-hosts Brad Kearns and Dr. Lindsay Taylor welcome Dr. Phil Maffetone, favored recurring guest and fat-adapted endurance training oracle from Oracle, AZ. Phil has a new book called The Overfat Epidemic, and cites research showing that some 91% of the American population is considered overfat, even if they appear to be at a healthy weight. 

Phil goes deep in this program, offering up never-before-heard nuggets relating to the individual variation in approach to low-carb/keto eating, including the importance of personal experimentation and rejecting a rigid approach. Phil questions the popular practice of intermittent fasting/compressed eating window, suggesting that it could be an additional stress in high stress modern life. Younger, more insulin sensitive folks might benefit more from fasting. Phil says if you are frequently hungry while eating a healthy, ancestral style diet, consider eating more. Regarding excess body fat, this is simply a red flag that you have some issues relating to poor dietary choices. His two-week test allows you to problem-solve to discover your optimal level of carb intake. FYI since you become more insulin resistant as you age, you might envision your carb intake level on a downward slope over your lifespan. Finally athletes, don’t forget to move around as much as possible in daily life. Strive for that variable workplace environment and discover creative ways to get exercise, instead of just booking your workout and then being still all day at commute/workdesk/leisure time. This greatly enhances fat adaptation. Phil goes to town with lively engagement from the primal hosts, so do not miss this show!

What can we learn about fasting? [00:02:40] 

What are the metabolic stresses of fasting? [00:07:19] 

Should one exercise while fasting? [00:08:57] 

What if one feels hungry during workout? [00:12:30] 

What are the signs and symptoms to look at to see if the fasting is working properly? [00:15:01]

Does the quantity of food affect the ability to fat adapt? [00:17:54] 

If you want to know that best training schedule and the best food to eat, listen to your own brain? [00:18:53] 

If you are in ketosis, sometimes you are not feeling hunger. How do you know you need to eat? [00:20:14] 

What does one do when they have too much body fat? [00:25:34] 

Phil's new book, "Overfat Pandemic," sums up the overfat situation.  For example 91 percent of American adults are overfat and no one is paying attention! [00:30:21] 

What is the role of nutritious carbs and how can carb intake be monitored? [00:36:09] 

People who are insulin sensitive can find their level of tolerance by experimenting.  [00:42:02] 

If you are getting older and you have been an enthusiast for a long time, what would be the best type of training regimen just to maintain good health? [00:46:57] 


Overfat Pandemic


Oct 20, 2017

Brad Kearns tackles more interesting Q&A from Primal Endurance podcast listeners and book readers. Submit your questions at and they will get covered on the air.  While the questions relate to the specific needs of the individual, the answers are presented in a manner that applies to a broad audience. Listen and enjoy learning about the challenges and successes of your endurance peers, and come away with plenty of practical tips to help improve your training and competitive results.

Male, 44 year old who had his gall bladder removed twenty years ago says he feels great and has fantastic energy and weight loss. Should he make any changes around fat intake? [00:04:34] 

When Dr. Maffetone says that the goal marathon pace is around 15 seconds per mile faster than the results from the maximum aerobic test. The questioner asks: "Is this the first mile of your MAF test, the average of all the miles, or the slowest mile, or something else?" [00:06:14] 

Should one stay in the pack when running in something like the Ironman or a marathon even when you feel that you want to go faster? [00:09:02] 

This is a question from a person who has lost 90 pounds and wants to use an Elliptical for many runs during the week. Is this acceptable? [00:12:07] 

Matt asks: "What kind of primal lifting exercises do you recommend? How many sets and reps? [00:14:22] 

When should he switch up his routine? [00:16:09] 

41-year-old male who has been living the primal lifestyle since April 2016 and asks Brad's opinion on his desire to "go faster to improve his fitness." [00:21:16] 

Do 50-plus athletes need to stop the long slow intensity training and engage in high intensity exercise to maintain fitness? Also do they need to eat carbs? [00:26:37] 

Here is a question about expanding the intuitive nature to all training. Is it possible to all the training by feel? [00:33:58] 

Here is another question from a person who lives at sea level in the UK. He wants to know what adjustments he should make because he is going to be living in Colorado at 10,000 feet for a few months.   [00:38:07] 

This is a question from a listener who has been running for 25 years. Now he has experienced cramping and wonders why this happened.  [00:40:13] 

Brad Kearns Morning Routine

Tim DeFrancesco

Aug 18, 2017

Podcast 111, Q and A

A listener asks: What do you think about doing a MAF test for a set time? [00:02:18] 

As an older athlete who wants to compete, what is the best way maintaining the muscle mass and keeping the heart in good shape? [00:03:18] 

What is the difference between FTP training and Maffetone Maximum Aerobic Heart rate model? [00:06:32] 

How far out from marathon race day would you recommend the addition of speed, tempo, interval training when MAF is your day to day? [00:10:10] 

This obstacle course racer is asking about what he can do to enhance his rest and recovery time. What is the difference between rejuvenating and training during the off-season? [00:13:03] 

Brad discusses eating clean and what happens when you decide to partake of a special treat. [00:17:23] 

This question is from a cross-country skier: If I am going for a five to seven hour race, should I be working toward skiing that long in a training session and should I keep it aerobic? [00:22:50] 

Due to my schedule, I can't run until after 9:00 p.m. is it okay for me to skip eating after these late night runs? [00:26:04] 

How do easy workouts contribute to your fitness? [00:30:42] 

From a 52 year old female triathlete: She wants to know why it is that she can compete at this elite level but in training, cannot break into a run without the MAF heart rate beeping. [00:37:22] 

Do you have to compromise health in any way to run the best you are capable of? [00:42:11] 

Maximum aerobic heart rate is the point where maximum benefits occur with minimal anaerobic stimulation that correlates to maximum fat oxidation per minute and it correlates to around 180 minus your age in heartbeats per minute.

May 12, 2017

Brad Kearns tackles more interesting Q&A from Primal Endurance podcast listeners and book readers. Submit your questions at and they will get covered on the air. 

Listen and enjoy learning about the challenges and successes of your endurance peers, and come away with plenty of practical tips to help improve your training and competitive results.


Shane is 44 year old. He keeps his heart rate low on runs so he is not worn out when he's finished like he used to be. He asks should I increase the distance and the frequency? [00:02:27] 

Katie is asking: I am wondering about all the theories emerging about high intensity interval training. Do I throw this out the window since now the emphasis is on aerobic? Is total calories burned at high intensity now trumped by low intensity exercise emphasizing fat? [00:07:02] 

Laura has thoroughly covered the Maffetone books, podcasts, and blogs. Six weeks into this lifestyle change but one area I can't find much information on is racing. She is a marathoner at a pace of 3:38. Her MAF tests have dropped her from 9:50 to 9:00 minute miles. What does she do for the next marathon? [00:11:54]

What should she use for fueling? Should she ever use sugar in races? [00:17:44] 

Mike is asking about maximum sustained power workouts (those high intensity training sessions) we talk about in the book. Should we weigh these primal essential movements with a weighted vest or something? What sort of exercises can he do? [00:20:18] 

How do I schedule my high intensity phase related to my races? [00:28:21] 

Mike who is 59 years old is wondering about lifting heavy things? This questioner has such a schedule routine of sprinting, strength session, kettle balls etc. and wants to know if this is too much? [00:31:13] 


Mar 21, 2017

Brad Kearns honors Tupac with a long serving of memorized rap lyrics and then talks about going keto. Maffetone suggests you restrict more carbs as you age, since we become more insulin resistant as we get older. Brad discusses his first effort at nutritional ketosis, which lasted only 3 weeks until he bombed out and had a week-long bout of fatigue. This was likely due to a prolonged fight or flight response making glucose to fuel energy since he was not fully fat- and keto-adapted, but had restricted carbs from historical patterns. Dr. D’Agostino says many people bomb out after three weeks because this is the toughest period to adapt, but the full benefits have not kicked in yet. Brad then relates how his second foray into keto, 126 days and counting at the time of recording, has been much more successful.

Mar 7, 2017

Brad Kearns raps with Ludacris and Bieber and then discusses concepts relating to maximum aerobic heart rate and how to escape carb dependency and become a fat burning beast. Brad reflects on Peter Defty’s recent appearance on the show and his suggestion of increasing your maximum aerobic heart rate if you are fat adapted; how Dr. Phil Maffetone reminds us that even slow paced aerobic workouts support peak performance at all speeds; and his propensity during his professional triathlon career to train very slowly in order to moderate the overall training program stress, but still support peak endurance performance in races. Bottom line: Slow down, eat primal-style, make your easy workouts easier and occasionally hit it really hard with what Mark Sisson calls, “Breakthrough workouts.”

Feb 28, 2017

Host Brad Kearns talks about the various options for how to use keto as a long-term tool for metabolic optimization. Long term nutritional ketosis is recommended by oracles like Dr. Phil Maffetone and could be a good option for many. Cyclic ketosis is a reasonable choice, where you enjoy the benefits of fasting/keto-aligned meals and also enjoy higher carb meals that bump you temporarily out of ketosis but help you recover from exercise stress and enjoy life and you can stay in a primal-aligned mode and not bother with the regimentation and strictness of nutritional ketosis, and still enjoy assorted health benefits.

Nov 29, 2016

The Primal Endurance podcast Interval shows are published in between our full-length feature episodes published on Fridays. For the Interval episodes, podcast host Brad Kearns discusses various elements of the Primal Endurance approach, pulling from topics in the book/digital course and adding some candid and fresh insights. The Interval shows will keep you focused and purposeful with all of your workouts and lifestyle decisions.

Among the most common questions relating to the importance of training aerobically and the method of calculating, and rationale for, training at or below your maximum aerobic heart rate. Details on the adjustment factors to the "180-age" baseline calculation. Comparing and contrasting the Maffetone 180-age formula with the conventional approach of using percentage of max heart rate and ventilatory threshold. Hint: be conservative and avoid the risks of chronic exercise. This is a great show to refer to over and over to cement the idea that taking it easy and working the low end aerobic zone will pay great dividends to your racing performance at higher speeds.

Nov 11, 2016
Host Brad Kearns keeps the momentum going with another Maffetone show, this time getting personal with questions about Brad's training methods and competitive results. Phil details his proclamation that you need never exceed 90% of max heart rate, even on your high intensity sessions. He describes the concept of "positive overreaching;" you need to stress the body to improve, but not too much that you break down or get into an over-training state. It's not the stress of occasional hard workouts that's troublesome, but the accumulation of stress that will "bury you," says Phil - and reminding us that it's not just training stress in the equation but life stress too. 
Brad bitches and moans to Phill about his "crash and burn" patterns, where he feels super and performs magnificent athletic feats one day, then heads into low periods where he drags in the am and needs a nap in the pm. Phil suggests that despite "normal, healthy" blood work and medical results, that something is indeed wrong, and that Brad (and other athletes) needs to do some detective work and n=1 experiments to look for solutions. Sometimes extreme experiments are warranted, such as a ketogenic eating period (recommended to Brad, who will try it again after a 3-week effort in April). Some more tidbits from Phil for athletes looking to maximize performance and health: ditch all refined carbs, of course, forever, no matter who you are! You become more insulin resistant with age, meaning you should eat fewer carbs; don't be afraid to use the "F" word - that is, eat plenty of fat so you don't backslide into carb cravings.
What is the difference between health and fitness? [00:00:52] 

How are team sports affected when some guys don't take care of themselves well? [00:05:22] 

One must never exceed 90 percent max heart rate in the anaerobic workouts. [00:08:46]

Are runners able to do well if they have only training anaerobically? [00:14:18] 

Brad's example in his experience in speed golf is testimony that this type of training really works. [00:16:07] 

When an athlete performs well over the years, eats healthy, sleeps plenty and then has a crash and burn. What is wrong?  What can he do? [00:19:26] 

It is a good idea to do a personal experiment with diet for several weeks to analyze this fatigue problem. [00:27:39] 

Does caloric deficit always result in weight loss? [00:29:00] 

Where can one find more information on the two-week test? [00:30:22] 

Does one have to stress the body in order to have the best performance? [00:32:21] 

Athletes Fit but Unhealthy

Carbohydrate Intolerance

Dr. Phil Maffetone

The Healthy Golfer

Nov 4, 2016

Host Brad Kearns catches up with Dr. Phil Maffetone, the aerobic training oracle in Oracle, AZ, host of, and author of The Big Book of Endurance Training and Racing. It's been a while since Phil's been on the show - check the old episodes for some great commentary on aerobic training and balancing fitness and health. In recent years, Phil's strategies and principles have gained more mainstream acceptance among endurance athletes. Going slow really does make you fast in races! It's just tough to adhere to heart rate limits when you are a driven, Type-A endurance machine. Phil discusses how "it's all about stress" - moderating the stress of your training to avail continued improvement. Unfortunately, Phil details how endurance athletes are chronically "injured" - his broad definition including physical injuries, biochemical (hormone imbalances, adrenal burnout, etc.), and mental/emotional (depression/anxiety). The latter is prevalent but rarely discussed among endurance athletes. Yes, a constant anxiety about your workout times and volume is a source of stress and ultimately illness.

Phil contends that most endurance athletes believe they must be "willing to sacrifice health for fitness," but that this is absolutely unnecessary. However, endurance athletes must be willing to be patient with the process of aerobic development. Some other tidbits from the show: Diet and emotions can disturb neurotransmitter balance in the brain; Sugar intake causes overproduction of serotonin, delivering a sedative effect (hence, carbo loading is lame but still happens routinely); excessively anaerobic training progress arose from old school coaches familiar with interval training. And this interesting tidbit: a symptom of the early stages of over-training is performing well!; yes, this is due to over-stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. You must use intuition to regulate training stress and prevent a future crash when stress hormones burn out.


Dr. Phil Maffetone describes the importance of monitoring the heart rate and how that affects

the injuries of the endurance athlete. [00:00:35] 

Does mainstream medicine really understand the injuries of the endurance athlete? [00:06:30] 

What happens within the athlete when he feels anxiety or depression? [00:11:39] 

What happens to the neurotransmitters when you are walking around stressed and under

pressure? [00:14:48] 

What about carbo-loading? [00:16:04] 

What happened in the early days of coaching without proper information about aerobic

training? [00:16:55] 

What are the symptoms of overtraining? [00:24:32] 

How does the aerobic vs. anaerobic training impact ones well being?  [00:29:22] 

Can one get all they are seeking by not pushing themselves and still preserving their health?


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